Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin
Vladimir Iiyich Lenin was born in 1870, the son of a School and civil service official. Early in his life he was drawn to revolutionary causes, the most significant was when his brother Alexander, was executed in 1887 for an attempted assignation of Than Czar Alexander III. Later, while pursuing university studies he was arrested for Revolutionary studies. He than continued his law degree on his own and than practiced Law briefly. Soon afterward he abandoned his practice to follow and study the teachings of Karl Marx, and to peruse revolutionary studies abroad.
In 1902 Lenin wrote a pamphlet titled what is to be done? In this pamphlet he argued that a party of disciplined professionals could bring a functional form of Socialism to Russia.
In 1903m during a meeting of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party in London the Party split in two, the Bolsheviks (which Lenin led) and the Mensheviks.
In 1905 Lenin Returned to Russia with the Outbreak of the 1905 Revolution and was elected to participate in the second Duma in 1907. Later that year Lenin, left Russia (again), due to disputes. He was found in Switzerland during the early years of World War I. According to Lenin the war was an Imperialist struggle.
After the outbreak of the February Revolution in 1917, the German Government allowed Lenin to cross the Border, en route back to Russia. The German government had hoped that by allowing Lenin back in to Russia, it would disrupt the Russian war effort and cause a disturbance in the Russian Government.
By this time Lenin concluded that Russia was "Ripe" for a socialist revolution, During an uprising in July 1917 Lenin was forced to flee to Finland. Between July and October the Bolsheviks gained Increasing control and it was safe for Lenin's return.
After the successful October revolution, Lenin became chairman of the Council of People's Commissars and virtual dictator. The first acts of the New Government, was to propose an armistice with Germany and to abolish private ownership of land and to redistribute it among the peasants.
Several services were nationalized such as the Banks, factories and others.
In March 1918 Lenin fulfilled his promise to have peace with Germany and signed the Humiliating treaty of Brest-Litovsk. However an internal civil war (for more information please see the Russian Civil war) and a war with Poland did not bring peace until late 1920. In 1919 Lenin established the Third International, or Comintern, to further the Revolutionary and socialist ideas. Under this policy extensive nationalization, food redistribution and control over industry dramatically increased.
In 1921 in an attempt to boost the Economy Lenin established the new economic policy, which oddly enough allowed some private enterprise.
By 1922, Lenin had successfully eliminated all originated opposition and has hushed other hostile factions with in his own party.
Lenin had established the dictatorship of the Communist party. The party controlled all the Local, Regional and National Soviets. Lenin remained Soviet Leader, chairman of the Council of People's Commissars, and an active member of the Soviet Politburo of the Communist Party until his death.
Due to Leninís extensive labors his health suffered. He had a stroke in 1922 and a more severe stroke in 1923 that limited his movement and his speech. Before his death he recommended the removal of Joseph Stalin from the Communist party. Lenin succumbed to the stress of running the country and his stroke and he dies on January 21, 1924. His remains were embalmed and put on display in Red square and still can be seen today.
Leon Trotsky was born in 1879 in southern Ukraine of Jewish Parents. His father was a prosperous farmer. As a young boy his father sent him to Odessa, where he became an outstanding student in a German secondary school. While in school he began to study Marxism in late 1896. In 1898 Trotsky was arrested, this was the first of many times where he was arrested. By 1900 he was exiled to Siberia. In 1902 he escaped, using a fake passport. Later that year he traveled to London and collaborated with Lenin on the Revolutionary Journal Iskra (Spark in Russian).
In 1905 Trotsky became chairman of the short-lived St. Petersburg soviet and was arrested during his last meeting. While in prison he developed his revolutionary ideas. Later he was exiled to Siberia, from there he escaped to Vienna, Austria, where he found several odd jobs.
During the outbreak of World War I he left for Switzerland and than to Paris, where he spread revolutionary ideas. Once the authorities caught word of his actions, he was expelled form France. From there he moved to New York City. Where he wrote with Alexandra Kollontai Noy Mir (New World). By May of 1917 he returned to Russia (on his own) to help overthrow Czar Nicholas II, and by the time July rolled around he became a member of the Bolshevik party. Later he collaborated with Lenin in the unsuccessful Bolshevik Uprising, he was arrested, but released in September of 1917. He was one of the chief organizers of the October revolution, which brought the Bolsheviks to power.
In November of 1917 Trotsky became the Peoples commissar of Foreign affairs under Lenin. He was also a key figure in the negotiations for a peace between Russia and Germany from World War I. In the treaty of Brest-Litovsk (February 1918) which was so humiliating to Russia Trotsky was forced to Resign as Commissar of Foreign Affairs. He than Became Commissar of War in mid 1918 and was able to organize the Red Army in the Russian Civil war. During the Russian civil war dissentient and a mutual dislike between Joseph Stalin and Trotsky.
As Leninís health declined, Stalin, more skillful in party infighting Gained prominence and he became the General Sectary of the party in 1922. On Lenin's Death power was passed to a triumvirate consisting of Stalin, Kamenev and Grigory Zinoviv. Trotsky kept coming into conflict with Stalin, for example he Trotsky was against Stalin's Plans for "Socialism in one Country. Trotsky enjoyed having the prestige of a Revolutionary leader and had followers in the army and State Administration. But Trotsky and Stalin kept clashing and Stalin's power in the triumvirate was greatly increasing and he eventually had full control over it. But Stalin refused to Expel Trotsky at this time, but he was dismissed as Commissar of war in 1925. In1926 Trotsky was expelled from the Politburo and the Party in 1927.
In January 1928, Trotsky was exiled to Alma-Ata (Now in present day Kazakhstan) and in 1929 he was ordered to leave the USSR. Refused to enter most other countries he found asylum in Turkey. In 1933 he was allowed to move to France, and in 1953 he found refuge in Norway.
In 1936 the Soviet government obtained papers authorizing the expulsion of Trotsky from Norway. He than was put on Trial for treason, which he denied. The outcome of the Trial was that Trotsky was found guilty and was charged with heading a plot against the Stalinist regime.
After he was expelled form the USSR Trotsky and his family moved and steeled in a suburb of Mexico City. On August 20, 1940 he was assassinated by Ramůn Mercader, a Spanish Communist and possible agent of Stalin.
Stalin was born in the year 1879. He was the son of a shoemaker. His origional name was Joseph Dzhugahvili, but changed it to Stalin (which means man of steal) in about 1913. In 1894 through 1899 Stalin studied for the Priesthood at the theological seminary at Tiflis, but he was soon expelled (big surprise, while he was still a student he became a fallower of Marxism and than soon joined the Social Democratic party. Stalin than soon became a diciple of Lenin and the Bolshevik party. He attended party caucusses and conventions in Stockholm in 1906 and in London in 1907. Stalin soon becam ean outsopken member of the party and was arrested five times between 1902 adn 1913, he escaped each and every time. In 1911 he traveld to St. Petersberg to help draft teh Pravada (truth in Russian) the paper was origionally devoted to small internal disputes with in the party but evolved to become the offical daily of teh Communist Party of the USSR.
Stalin was than arested again in 1913 and tahn exiled to Siberia, where he remained untill he was granted amnesty after teh febuary Revolution of 1917. He than left for St. Petersberg which the soviets renamed Petrograd. After the October 1917 Revolution Stalin enterd the Soviet Cabnet as the People's commissar for nationalities and beban to emerge as a leader of the New Soviet Regime. Durrign the Russian Civil War he became an important leader on the miltary fronts and in the capital.
Stalin was soon elected to ( by the Soviet leaders not the people) as the General sectary of the central Committe of the party. This enabled him to controol the rank and file members adn to construct an apparatus that would be loyal to him.
Lenin regared Stalin and his ideas, but not as a leader. In 1922 Lenin wrote a testament that highly critized Stlian and supproted his removed from the party. Unforutunitly Lenin died before any action could be taken.
After Lenin's death Stalin, Kamenev and Grigori Zinoiev formed a triumvrite government. In 1925 Stalin attempts to remove Leon Trotsky (believed to be the main sucessor after Lenin) was ousted form the communist party in 1925. Stalin than soon turned on Kemenef and Zinoviev. Stalin soon had total and ultimate controol of the Soviet Governmet.
The main issue at the time was the Soviet economy. Lenin's New Econmic policy was still in place. The police wavered between all sides of the political spectrum (the Communist Ploitical spectrum). The left wanded to procede with the massive indstrilazation at the expece of the Peasents. Te right wanted to grant conessesions to the peasents.
Lenin's Now econmic Policy lasted untill 1928. It had considerable secuess. Stalin econmic policy, which he had called the Five Year Plan was one of his first major moves. Ruthless measures were taken in this plan. Massive indistrilazation took place, at the expence of the peasnets, which had prosperd under Lenin's New Econmic Policy.
The poltical aims of the Stalinist regieme were intresting. He instated a Totalitarian state and wanted to identify toltiran rule with the communist party. Unlike Lenins origional goal to eventually disolve the governmetn, the power of the Governmnet had increased. The Ultimate power taht Stalin poseddes was reminnidant to that of Czar Nicholas !. Stalin eventually retunred to many of the same consertave laws such as abortion and Divorce.
Stalin wanted to protayr a strong and powerful nation to teh Soviet citiznes and the capitalist nations of the world. In the 1930's Stalin made dictatorship absoulte. He was able to accomplish this through a "liquidation" of all party oppisition.
Stalin led a series of Purges which began in 1934. Stalin held trials which accued many of the origional revolutionalry heros and former Soviet governmet leaders of treason.Sensorhip increasded dramiticly, if you said anythig against the Soviet Union ro Stlin the were arrested. People such as Kamenev, Zinoviev, and Mamny old Bolsheviks were sentanced. Those found guilty (almost all put on trial) were either exiled or murderd.
Later in the 1930's Stalin established a secret police, which set off a reign of terror.
1n 1930 Stalin had Drafted a new constutituion, some very limited democratice reforms were passed, but a majority of the power was still in Stalin's Hands.
STALIN DURRING WAR TIME
In 1934, the Soviet Union had joined the League of Nations, Stalin wanted to improve relations with France and Great Brittian. When relations failed to improve Stalin than signed the Treaty of Rapallo. This was a friendship treaty with Germany. And The Soviet Union signed a Non-aggression pact with Germany in 1939. This was desigined to keep the Soviet Union out of World War II.
The German's had broke the Pact in 1941, this caught the Soviet Union off guard. It temporaryly paralyed Stalin leadership and almost led to the collapse of the Soviet Army.
Stalin's Skills as a Miltary leader have been questiosnd by those outside of the Soviet Union, mainly the western powers. He was never at the
front. He led the entire war effort from the Kermlin.
Stalin attened many confrences with the western powers durring the war. Some of them included the Tehran confrecne( 1943 in Iran) the Yalta Confrence (1945) and the Potsdam confrence (1945). The main reason for these confrences were to discuss war-time stragity and to discues Post-war plans.
Stlain proved to be an exelent diplomat. He was abel to convince the western powers to establih a Sphere of Sovit influence.
STALIN'S LATER YEARS
Stalin was able to strenghen the soviet union, but in evil and ruthless ways. He felt uneasy and even suspicus about communist uprisings out side of his controol. Some of them included the Communist revilution in China in 1948 and When Josip Tito and his communist regime took comtrool to Yugoslavia.
Stalin's Paranoia rapidly incresed in his later years. The paranoia led to increased perscutionand repression. He rare public appearances became almost non existant. His lack of them increased his image and myth. He also began a small resurgence of the Purges but in a much smaller scale.
Stalin died on March 5,1953 due to a cerbral hemorrhage. His body was embalmed mext to Lenin's in the mausoleum on Red Square.
Very little was known of Stalin's Life. All that was known was that he was married twice adn had three children. Yakov, his first and only child from his first marrage was killed in nazi capitivity. His other son Vasily, was in teh Soviet Air force untill be died in 1932. His only daughter Svetlana, defteted to the United States (go figure) in 1967.
In 1956 The new Soviet Leader Kikita Khrushhev and many other Soviet leaders attacktd Stalin ruthless was and his policies. The Soviet Leader even confirmed many accusations from the Westen Powers.
In 1961 the Soviet Congress voted to remove stalins remainns form Red Square.